INDEX

Acoustics and Psychoacoustics

Table of contents


1.0 Introduction to sound

1.1 Pressure waves and sound transmission 1

1.2 Sound intensity, power and pressure level 14

1.3 Adding sounds together 20

1.4 The inverse square law 28

1.5 Sound interactions 33

1.6 Time and frequency domains 51

1.7 Analyzing spectra 56

 

2.0 Introduction to hearing 65

2.1 The anatomy of the hearing system 66

2.2 Critical bands 74

2.3 Frequency and pressure sensitivity ranges 79

2.4 Loudness perception 82

2.5 Noise-induced hearing loss 91

2.6 Perception of sound source direction 96

 

3.0 Notes and harmony 109

3.1 Musical notes 109

3.2 Hearing pitch 119

3.3 Hearing notes 136

3.4 Tuning systems 144

 

4.0 Acoustic model for musical instruments 152

4.1 A 'black box' model of musical instruments 152

4.2 Stringed instruments 155

4.3 Wind instruments 166

4.4 Percussion instruments 194

4.5 The speaking and singing voice 198

 

5.0 Hearing timbre and deceiving the ear 210

5.1 What is timbre? 210

5.2 Acoustics of timbre 211

5.3 Psychoacoustics of timbre 220

5.4 The pipe organ as a timbral synthesiser 226

5.5 Deceiving the ear 228

 

6.0 Hearing music in different environments 247

6.1 Acoustics of enclosed spaces 247

6.2 Room modes and standing waves 288

6.3 Absorption materials 305

6.4 Diffusion materials 311

6.5 Sound isolation 316

6.6 Energy-time considerations 321

 

Appendix 1

      Solving the ERB equation 367

Appendix 2

      Converting between frequency ratios and cents 369

Appendix 3

      Deriving the reverberation time equation 371

      Appendix 4

      Deriving the reverberation time equation for different

      frequencies and surfaces 375

 

 

 

Index 379